Theme Forums

A Tool Kit of Emerging Methods for CEA (Part 2)

Moderator: Larry Canter


    Environmental Indices and Habitat Suitability Models

    Presenter(s): Larry Canter, Sam Atkinson

    Multi-factor environmental indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several case studies with indices will be briefly summarized. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices on habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects. As to be shown from several examples, with essentially no modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions.

    Network Analysis in CEA, Ecosystem Services Assessment and Green Space Planning

    Presenter(s): Lourdes Cooper

    Network analysis and GIS were applied in defining ecosystem services provided by green spaces using the Kent Thameside case study in a research project for the UK Department for Food and Rural Affairs. This paper discusses the application of network analysis in understanding relationships between land uses and ecosystem services and as a useful technique to engage stakeholders. Network analysis provides a means to identify key issues and assess cumulative effects in green spaces planning, Sustainability Appraisals and SEAs.

    How to Estimate Cumulative Community Impacts with a Choice Modelling Approach

    Presenter(s): Galina Ivanova, John Rolfe

    Cumulative environmental, social and economic impacts of various developments can be assessed using a choice modelling approach. A case study of a mining town in Queensland, Australia, shows how members of a community might value or respond to different cumulative impacts of multiple new developments. The Choice Modelling technique can be used to improve the impact assessment process and support the decision making process in addressing cumulative impacts and environmental, social and economic sustainability of local and regional communities.

    Cumulative Impact Data Management

    Presenter(s): Danny Reinke, Larry Canter

    Cumulative impact analysis requires the collation of data from many sources, and finding the data in large documents that are not indexed for this purpose can be difficult. In order to make the data useful for CEA practitioners, a tool that can search hundreds of documents simultaneously has been developed. The software is “Google-like” and requires little to no learning curve and is free at the user level. Development and use of the tool will be discussed and demonstrated.

    Promoting Environmental Sustainability Via an Expert Elicitation Process

    Presenter(s): Tom Swor

    Environmental sustainability planning was applied to the 981-mile long, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified along with actions to restore ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an expert elicitation process involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts. The received information was synthesized into goals for resources, actions to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of environmental sustainability actions were identified and considered along with navigation improvements.

    A Toolkit of Emerging Methods for CEA (Part 1)

    Moderator: Larry Canter


        Conceptual Models, Matrices, and Adaptive Management

        Presenter(s): Larry Canter

        CEA can be aided by the use of an expanded set of methods. Three examples include conceptual models, modified interaction matrices, and adaptive management (AM) processes. Conceptual models range from summarized scientific knowledge to graphical depictions of environmental resources, their interrelationships, and potential changes resulting from multiple actions and stressors. Modified matrices can be used to address connections between proposed actions, other actions and identified VECs. Finally, AM can be used to reduce uncertainties and inform the science of CEA.

        Landscape Evaluation: A Strategic Tool for the Cumulative Impacts Identification and Valuation

        Presenter(s): Beatriz Silva-Torres, Miguel Castillo-González

        The landscape shows the expression of different attributes from the sites that are studied. Considering the ecological status, the environmental components that have been modified and the degree of human intervention, the result is expressed as accumulated impacts, obtaining a base line that allows us to decide the pertinence of accepting new activities. This paper shows the methodology used for the evaluation of the cumulative impacts, using landscape evaluation as a tool.

        Using Measures of Landscape Fragmentation for Cumulative Effects Assessment

        Presenter(s): Jochen A.G. Jaeger

        The effective mesh size method (Jaeger 2000, Landscape Ecology) is currently applied in Switzerland and Germany in monitoring systems for sustainable development for the indicator “landscape fragmentation.” The German Federal Environment Agency has suggested introducing region-specific limits based on the effective mesh size method to control landscape fragmentation. Using this method, newly-planned transportation infrastructure can be balanced with the removal of existing infrastructure to not increase the overall cumulative impact.

        People Matter: Integrating Meaningful Social and Cultural Measures in Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management

        Presenter(s): Ross Mitchell, Bethany Beale, Mitchell Goodjohn, Linda Havers, Helen Evans

        Cumulative effects assessment (CEA) and management could be improved by considering meaningful but oft-neglected concepts such as “social capital” and “cultural capital.” Social capital is influenced by factors such as diverse inclusive networks and volunteerism levels, whereas cultural capital consists of the values, history, transitions and behaviors that link a group of people together. After reviewing how these qualitative forms of capital are measured, innovative approaches are discussed for their strategic incorporation for CEA and management.

            Assessing the Incremental Effects of Mt. Milligan Project Related Activities on the Region to be Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic

            Presenter(s): Ly-Shu Ramos, Bruce Ott, Sandra Baker

            The Mt. Milligan Project is introduced, including methods used for assessing cumulative effects associated with the project, results of the assessment and potential benefits and future collaborative activities between Mt. Milligan environmental management efforts and regional forest management efforts. An overview on the region not already affected by the mountain pine beetle epidemic is presented with or without the project. The cumulative effects of the project are compared to the effects of logging of forests damaged by the mountain pine beetle.

                Case Studies of Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management in Western and Northern Canada (Part 1)

                Moderator: Lorraine Seale, Alan Erlich, Graham Seagel


                  The NWT Environmental Stewardship Framework

                  Presenter(s): David Livingstone

                  Concern about the potential cumulative effects of development in the Northwest Territories (NWT) has catalyzed the development and implementation of a broad environmental stewardship framework that establishes a context for responsible economic development in the NWT. The framework has five broad components: vision; planning and environmental programs; assessment, regulation and enforcement; administration; and audit and reporting. Most components are entrenched in land claims-based legislation. The remaining programs and activities are largely policy and mandate-based.

                  Managing Cumulative Effects of Oil and Gas Development in Northeast British Columbia: Preparing for the Boom

                  Presenter(s): George Hegmann

                  The BC Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) and the Muskwa-Kechika Management Board (MKMB) supported research into how to manage cumulative effects of pending large-scale oil and gas development in northeast British Columbia, Canada. This vast region has a substantial natural gas opportunity, a major natural area referred to as the “Serengeti of North America” for its still-large populations of ungulates and carnivores, and is an area of traditional use by many aboriginals. This presentation describes various solutions developed to manage the burgeoning influx of exploration and production.

                  A Strategic Assessment Approach to Oil and Gas Rights Management in the Beaufort Sea, NWT (Part One)

                  Presenter(s): Tom Duncan, Jess Dunford, Paul Fraser, Heidi Klein, Mieke Vander Valk

                  Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) required a tool for supporting oil and gas rights issuance activity in the Beaufort Sea. Interest in Beaufort oil and gas raised the need for a strategic approach to its assessment. The tool needed to have an integrated framework: environmental, social and economic. Aboriginal groups, industry, government and non-government organizations were involved in the development. INAC undertook development of a GIS-based Decision Support Tool (DST) in order to meet these requirements.

                  A Strategic Assessment Approach to Oil and Gas Rights Management in the Beaufort Sea, NWT (Part Two)

                  Presenter(s): Heidi Klein, Jess Dunford, Paul Fraser, Tom Duncan

                  A GIS-based decision support tool (DST) was developed to facilitate decisions related to oil and gas exploration in the Beaufort Sea. The tool identifies regions of high, medium or low probability for exploration while flagging those areas of least to greatest environmental sensitivity. Its intended future use includes identifying areas, which may be sensitive to cumulative changes. This paper will discuss the development of the DST and its potential use for strategic planning and cumulative effects management.

                  Cumulative Environmental Effects Assessment for the Mackenzie Gas Project: Lessons Learned

                  Presenter(s): Alan Kennedy

                  The Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) comprises three natural gas production fields, a gas gathering system, and a 1,300 Km. pipeline from Inuvik NWT to Alberta.The cumulative environmental effects assessment (CEA) included scoping of temporal and spacial elements, baseline evaluation, comparison of future oil and gas exploration and development scenarios. The paper discusses study boundaries, future development scenarios, reasonably foreseeable activities, and resource threshold evaluation. The paper will provide lessons learned and will contribute to CEA best practice.

                  Case Studies of Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management in Western and Northern Canada (Part 2)

                  Moderator: Lorraine Seale, Alan Erlich, Graham Seagel


                      Cumulative Environmental Effects Management of Uranium Mining in Northern Saskatchewan Using GIS

                      Presenter(s): Robert Moroz

                      The potential for cumulative effects in Northern Saskatchewan is rising as the region experiences increased industrial activity, primarily from uranium exploration and mining development. In response, Cameco Corporation is developing new approaches for quantitatively assessing cumulative impacts. Baseline and operational environmental monitoring programs provide direct information for use in assessments, but are spatially limited. To address these limitations, surrogate environmental indicator information is being integrated with environmental monitoring data using GIS to identify areas for further evaluation and assessment.

                          Terms of Reference for Caribou Impact Assessment and Monitoring

                          Presenter(s): Stephen Lines

                          Based on my review of terms of reference (guidelines) for environmental impact statements, I find that proponents would benefit from clear direction concerning what factors to consider when assessing impacts on caribou. The approach taken to develop the guidelines is an ecosystemic approach, meaning that information concerning both natural and human factors influencing caribou populations are required to predict and verify development impacts on caribou. Implementing the guidelines requires a cumulative and collaborative approach to caribou impact assessment and monitoring.

                          Rejection on Cultural Grounds: Cumulative Cultural Effects and RFFDs in the Upper Thelon River Basin

                          Presenter(s): Alan Ehrlich

                          The Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board recently rejected four proposed uranium exploration developments in the Upper Thelon River basin, based on the cultural importance of the Upper Thelon basin. Cumulative effects were important considerations in these EIAs. This talk will use case studies to explore the relevance of scale in impacts of a spiritual nature, EIA as a driver land use planning and the application of reason in considering foreseeable developments.

                          Does Study Area Affect a CEA Outcome?

                          Presenter(s): Tobin Seagel

                          Cumulative effects assessments are only as meaningful as the data and assumptions they are built from. Good design is critical. This paper explores how much the choice of the size of a study area impacts the outcome of a CEA. A case study of Plutonic Power’s Green Power Corridor, 24 potential run-of-river hydropower projects in coastal British Columbia, guides the discussion.

                            CEA in Marine Environments: Case Studies and Experiences (Part 1)

                            Moderator: Jon Isaacs


                            Cumulative Effects Assessment in Marine Environments: Angola Case Study

                            Presenter(s): Gary Wolinsky

                            The Cabinda Gulf Oil Company operates in a dynamic marine environment. A variety of factors influence the marine environment in Cabinda and contribute to local/regional ecological conditions, particularly the Congo River, which drains a 3.7 million km2 basin and discharges more than 42,500 m3/second (267317 bbls/second) of water into the CABGOC operations area. CABGOC conducts a variety of environmental monitoring activities to assess impacts around operations to fulfill regulatory mandates and better understand marine phenomena.

                            Assessing Cumulative Effects of Scientific Research: A Case Study on Alaska’s Steller Sea Lions

                            Presenter(s): Jon Isaacs, Anne Southam

                            In 2000, Congress appropriated $80 million for NMFS to research the decline of and develop conservation measures for Steller sea lions, an ESA-listed species. This funding brought challenges for NMFS in coordinating research. The Humane Society of the United States filed a lawsuit, alleging authorized research activities could have irreversible effects on Stellers. So NMFS produced an EIS to address impacts and enlisted an independent panel to verify appropriate research methods and develop a monitoring program to mitigate impacts.

                            Cumulative Effects in the Norwegian Management Plan for the Barents Sea

                            Presenter(s): Erik Olsen

                            In 2006 Norway implemented an integrated, ecosystem-based management plan for the Barents Sea. Strategic goals and area-based management frameworks for the human sectors fisheries, shipping, petroleum and external influences have been set based on sectorial EIAs, assessment of cumulative impact and analysis of area use. Analyses in the sectorial EIAs ranged from quantitative to qualitative making cumulative impact assessment difficult, resorting to the precautionary approach where cumulative impacts were difficult to determine.

                            CEA in Marine Environments: Case Studies and Experiences (Part 2)

                            Moderator: Jon Isaacs


                            Cumulative Impact Assessment for Marine Fisheries Actions

                            Presenter(s): Tamra Faris

                            Cumulative impacts may be objectively evaluated by establishing reference points with criteria for impact determination on environmental issues. A method is illustrated for federally regulated groundfish fisheries off Alaska managed under fishery management plans according to the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act. Major issues include Steller sea lion listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) whose range overlaps waters where these fisheries are conducted. The method has potential for adaptation and use in other marine fisheries management action analyses.

                            A Matrix-Based CEA Process for Marine Fisheries Management

                            Presenter(s): Larry Canter, David Tomey

                            A two-component process for CEA studies prepared by NOAA Fisheries Service is described. The components are scoping and baseline, and impact analysis; each are comprised of requisite “building blocks.” Scoping and baseline integrates affected environment and effects information from other non-fishing and fishing actions. Impact analysis incorporates baseline findings with the direct/indirect impacts of alternatives. Information is also included on matrix tables for study analyses and summarization. Examples of matrices are included, and key lessons are described.

                            A Systematic Approach to Cumulative Effects Analysis on Bowhead Whales

                            Presenter(s): Jon Isaacs, Anne Southam, Taylor Brelsford

                            An environmental review concerning allocation for subsistence bowhead whaling by aboriginal peoples faced significant challenges addressing cumulative effects. Aboriginal subsistence hunting, historical commercial whaling, accelerating offshore oil development, and climate change must be considered when assessing effects on bowheads. Logical and transparent cumulative effects analyses are essential to the legal defensibility of a review. Cumulative effects were addressed in the EIS for Issuing Annual Quotas to the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission for a Subsistence Hunt on Bowhead Whales (2008-2012).

                            CEA of Oil and Gas Development on Alaskas North Slope

                            Moderator: Jon Isaacs


                            Institutional Challenges in Managing the Cumulative Impacts of North Slope Oil and Gas Development

                            Presenter(s): Jon Isaacs, Joan Kluwe

                            In 2003, the National Research Council concluded that there was no comprehensive assessment of the cumulative effects of North Slope oil and gas development. Stakeholders are conscientiously addressing cumulative impacts. Potential solutions include 1) an updated database of past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future effects for consistent impact assessment, 2) common standards and thresholds to assess impacts, 3) agreement/funding commitment on topical and geographic areas for baseline research, and 4) effective monitoring programs for adaptive management of cumulative impacts.

                            Perspective on Cumulative Effects of Oil and Gas Development from North Slope Residents

                            Presenter(s): Johnny Aiken, Jon Isaacs

                            The North Slope Borough’s predominantly Inupiat Eskimo population lives in eight far-flung communities. Indigenous culture relies on the land and sea; subsistence activities revolve around whaling, hunting, fishing, and trapping. Benefits from development include improved infrastructure; business opportunities for Native corporations, and local jobs and revenue. Oilfield development has impacted access to traditional subsistence use areas; concerns are growing regarding human health and cultural welfare. Additional cumulative effects research is needed to understand and mitigate potential impacts.

                            Environmental Effects of Beaufort Sea Causeways: Revisited

                            Presenter(s): Joseph Colonell

                            In the 1980s, two gravel-fill causeways were constructed into the nearshore Beaufort Sea to support North Slope oilfields. Regulators feared 1) causeways would obstruct alongshore movements of anadromous fish, 2) causeway-induced alterations of local hydrography would be detrimental to fish habitat, and 3) interaction of causeways would exacerbate these impacts. Industry-supported monitoring concluded that causeways had no population-level effects on anadromous species. A National Academy of Sciences 2003 study of North Slope oilfields cumulative effects concurred.

                            Development of an Integrated Impact Assessment Model for Oil and Gas Production in a Sensitive Arctic Environment

                            Presenter(s): Bruce St. Pierre

                            ConocoPhillips recently completed an Integrated Impact Assessment Model to study impacts related to proposed oil and gas production activities in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska. A computer simulation model was developed to predict, combine, and compare economic, environmental, and health and safety impacts related to construction, drilling and operations for a number of different development scenarios including construction of a permanent road from a neighboring oil field and two roadless options using only seasonal ice roads and air transport.

                            CEA Toolkit 2: Use of GIS

                            Moderator: Sam Atkinson


                            Aquatic Habitat Modeling Via Watershed Data Using GIS Modeling

                            Presenter(s): Samuel Atkinson, James Kennedy, Jamie Slye, David Johnson, Barney Venables

                            The Trinity River flows through the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, Texas, USA, providing an opportunity to examine the effect of urbanizing watersheds on aquatic habitat quality. This river has a high wastewater treatment plant effluent to river flow ratio during late summer months, which may provide insights into the cumulative effects of watershed development on the rivers of semi-arid regions. This paper provides evidence that aquatic habitat characteristics can be predicted based on easily accessible watershed characteristics.

                            Habitat Equivalency Analysis GIS Tool (HEA-DCGIS) for Calculating Ecological Restoration and Rehabilitation of a Cumulative Impact Frame of Actions

                            Presenter(s): Giuseppe Magro, Stefano Scarpanti, Stefania Pellegrini

                            HEA is N.O.A.A. methodology determining compensation for environmental resource injuries. A Dynamic Computational GIS tool (DCGIS) is here improved for spatial application of HEA estimating cumulative impacts on ecological resources and to determine appropriate level of compensation. Ecological damages are characterized in terms of indicators by which it is possible to plan a service-to-service compensatory restoration. The HEA-DCGIS tool methodology is powerful for assessing cumulative environmental impacts generated by different actions.

                            Enhancing Cumulative Effects Assessment in Canada: A GIS-Based Tool for Federal Project Identification

                            Presenter(s): Joseph Ronzio, Nick Sanders

                            A GIS-based tool for informing cumulative effects assessment was developed using data from the Canadian Environmental Assessment Registry. The results of the study demonstrated that the Registry is a rich source of data best suited to issues scoping, large-scale conservation or land use planning, and predicting cumulative effects on a regional and project-specific level. The available data is useful for planning CEAs and the authors provide insight on modifications that could improve the decision-support capability.

                            Evaluation of Cumulative and Synergistic Impacts in the Hydropower River Basin Inventory Studies (HRBIS)

                            Presenter(s): Denise Matos, Silvia Helena Pires, Paulo César Menezes, Daniel Oliveira, Luciana Paz, Katia Garcia

                            The HRBIS aims to select the best alternative for the river basin head division scheme of a hydropower project, considering the energetic, economical and socioenvironmental aspects. This paper presents the methodology developed to incorporate the socioenvironmental analysis together with the other dimensions, under a multi-objective focus. It emphasizes the procedures for the evaluation of the cumulative and synergistic impacts of the group of hydropower projects in the different stages of the studies, as well as the correspondent indicators.

                            Contributing to Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems: Strengthening Institutions, Science and Practice for Regulating the Impacts of Human Activities to Fish and Fish Habitat (Part 1)

                            Moderator: Patrice LeBlanc and Neil Fisher


                            Working Towards a National Capacity for Integrated Management

                            Presenter(s): Ruth Waldick

                            The ability of decision-makers to assess and manage the effects of individual decisions is challenged by existing governance/institutional approaches. At any scale, two key challenges are the partitioning of decision-making along jurisdictional/sectoral lines and division of information along disciplinary/jurisdictional lines. I present a model for facilitative governance being testing in Canada, with focus on necessary mechanisms to (i) support interagency knowledge/information exchange; (ii) enable science/information specialists to directly support regionally-based decision-makers.

                            Habitat Pathways of Effects (PoEs): A Tool for Assessing Cumulative Effects

                            Presenter(s): Mike Stoneman

                            Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s Habitat Management Program has developed a Risk Management Framework that guides the assessment and management of impacts of works and undertakings to fish and fish habitat as part of regulatory reviews under the Fisheries Act. A series of Pathways of Effect diagrams were developed, each linking a specific activity to a number of end effects by way of identified stressors. By expanding the scale, these tools can also be refined for use in assessing cumulative effects.

                            Characterizing Cumulative Effect from an Integrated Resource Planning Perspective

                            Presenter(s): Roland Cormier

                            Project level regulatory and environmental assessment processes typically assess and ascertain potential impacts of one project or human activity to a specific habitat or species within an aquatic ecosystem. By design, the scope of such assessments seldom considers the other myriad of human activities that may impact the same habitat or species. Cumulative effects or impacts are the result of the sum of activities occurring within their legal and policy frameworks. We propose a framework to identify multiple pathways of effects and characterizing the risks within the scope of an ecosystem unit.

                            Integrated Oceans Management and Ecosystem Approaches

                            Presenter(s): Darren Williams, Robert Siron

                            Through its Canada’s Oceans Strategy, the Government of Canada committed to taking an integrated management (IM) approach to managing human activities in oceans and protecting the most important marine ecosystems. As management of human activities needs to be done in a risk-management context, an Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) framework was developed to identify ecologically significant components of marine ecosystems that require special attention or management measures. “Pathways-of-Effects” models are developed to assess cumulative impacts of the most impacting activities in oceans. All this information will be then considered in Regional Environmental Assessments conducted to inform the IM planning.

                            Contributing to Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems: Strengthening Institutions, Science and Practice for Regulating the Impacts of Human Activities to Fish and Fish Habitat (Part 2)

                            Moderator: Patrice LeBlanc and Neil Fisher


                            Ecosystem-Based Approach to CEAM of Fish and Fish Habitat: Lessons from the AFS Symposium and DFO Workshop

                            Presenter(s): Barry Sadler

                            A Framework for Making Ecosystem Approach to the Management of Fisheries Operational

                            Presenter(s): Stratis Gavaris

                            An Ecosystem Approach for Management requires consideration of cumulative effects. A strategy specifies what will be done about human pressure using a reference to signal when the pressure is unacceptable. The reference is established from consideration of the response by valued attributes to alternative references. Cumulative effects can be decomposed into the contributions of activities to a pressure and the combined impact of pressures on an attribute. Such decomposition can facilitate management.

                            Cumulative Impacts on American Eel: Recent Approaches to Governance, Policy, Management and Biological Challenges

                            Presenter(s): Rob MacGregor

                            The American eel is declining significantly in parts of its North American range and is now listed as endangered in Ontario. The decline appears to be related to the cumulative effects of fishing, habitat loss due to barriers and turbine mortalities. Recovery and conservation are further challenged by its unique biology and the complexity of management responsibilities spanning at least 25 jurisdictions. Despite the challenges, managers are working on integrated approaches aimed at ensuring coordinated science and management at the population level.

                            Adaptive CoAdaptive Co--management: Practical lessons to assess and mitigate cumulative effects in a tropical floodplain

                            Presenter(s): Ronald W. Jones

                            Global freshwater ecosystems are undergoing profound anthropogenic change. Ecosystem characteristics and livelihoods are severely altered due to cumulative effects. Adaptive co-management is promoted as an iterative process to develop sustainable aquatic resource management institutions. Results from Beel Mail, Bangladesh show how opportunities and challenges in developing cumulative effects assessment and resource institutions require effective leaders; engaging diverse stakeholder groups and fostering community-based fisheries. Challenges include empowering local solutions, integrating beyond top-down management and recognizing the multiple and cross-scale origins of cumulative effects.

                            Contributing to Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems: Strengthening Institutions, Science and Practice for Regulating the Impacts of Human Activities to Fish and Fish Habitat (Part 3)

                            Moderator: Patrice LeBlanc and Neil Fisher

                            Introduction: Patrice LeBlanc

                            Keynote: Mimi Breton


                            Refocusing Cumulative Effects Assessment

                            Presenter(s): Lorne Grieg

                            In recent decades, considerable attention has been paid to the issue of cumulative effects assessment (CEA). However, despite our ongoing dialogue there is still no broadly accepted definition of cumulative effects, except that they arise from some combination of multiple stresses. Assessment of cumulative effects in much environmental assessment (EA) practice remains both qualitative and distinct from EA focused on project effects. This treatment imposes important limitations for the ability of CEA processes to provide meaningful advice to decision makers on the future sustainability of impacted environments.

                            Regionally-Based Environmental Assessment: Are We Looking at the Next Wave in the Evolution of Environmental Assessment?

                            Presenter(s): Tim Smith

                            The application of regionally-based approaches to environmental assessment may contribute to better informed and more streamlined project evaluation, while at the same time supporting strategic objectives for a region. With mounting expectations to more fully address cumulative and induced effects, to involve communities and Aboriginal groups in development planning, including consideration of alternative futures, and to better situate environmental assessment within an integrated environmental management framework, it seems clear that we can no longer rely exclusively on project-based environmental assessment.

                            Cumulative Effects Mitigation and Management at Sub-Regional Levels (Part 1)

                            Moderator: Larry Canter


                            Using Existing Environmental Management Programs

                            Presenter(s): Larry Canter

                            An initial consideration for mitigation and cumulative effects management should focus on pollutant emissions trading programs and resource conservation and enhancement emphases. Several countries have implemented air pollutant programs, as well as water quality (pollutant) programs. Features include the use of emission caps (air) and total maximum daily loads (water). Resource programs include wetlands mitigation banking, resource offsets, and designated protection and conservation areas. Illustrations of such programs are provided, and opportunities for usage in CEA will be proposed.

                            Implementation of a Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan Task

                            Presenter(s): Danny Reinke, Judy Hohman

                            The desert tortoise (DT) is a listed species in the southwestern United States. The Recovery Plan identifies raven predation as a cumulative impact parameter and control of predation as a recovery task. With U.S. FWS as the lead agency and the collaboration of agencies from the Mojave Desert Managers Group, a plan was developed and is being implemented through a multi-agency working group. The details of this collaboration and development of the project-specific task will be discussed.

                            Strategic Approach to Cumulative Effects: The Proposed Kimberley LNG Hub in Western Australia

                            Presenter(s): Jenny Pope, Paul Gamblin

                            In response to increasing pressure to open up the pristine Kimberley Region for resource development, the Government of Western Australia has committed to an integrated, strategic process to identify a suitable location for a multi-user LNG hub in the region for processing gas from the Browse gas fields. The process aims to minimise the cumulative effects of LNG developments, while ensuring that unique environmental and cultural values are preserved and that social benefits, particularly for the Traditional Owners, are delivered.

                            Towards Acceptable Change: A Thresholds Approach to Manage Cumulative Effects in Southern Alberta

                            Presenter(s): Peggy Holroyd

                            The Southern Foothills Study was launched by a group of landowners, industry, environmental groups and local governments to assess the cumulative impact of future land use in southwest Alberta. Building on the Study, this research tests a participatory, innovative approach to identify thresholds that can help to manage the cumulative effects of land use activity on valued ecosystem components. Lessons from this case study and recommendations for scenario analysis and thresholds-based management of cumulative effects are provided.

                            Cumulative Effects Mitigation and Management at Sub-Regional Levels (Part 2)

                            Moderator: Larry Canter


                            The Use of Offsets in EIAs as a Way of Mitigating Cumulative Impacts for Major Resource Proposals in the Northwest of Western Australia

                            Presenter(s): Garry Middle

                            The use of offsets as a way of counterbalancing impacts of proposals is an emerging tool in EIA, and can be one way of addressing cumulative impacts. This paper examines some recent major resource related proposals for the north of WA and the effectiveness of offsets in addressing impacts and the drivers for the use of offsets. The usefulness and limitations of offsets are discussed, and the key issues that are emerging within a policy context identified.

                            Mitigation of Cumulative Effects on Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins Through Collaborative Management

                            Presenter(s): Jon Isaacs, Anne Southam

                            Scientists have documented behavioral changes in Hawaiian spinner dolphins due to cumulative effects of increased human activities. Shallow bays, popular for humans, are prime dolphin habitat for resting, caring for young, and avoiding predators. Swim-with-dolphin tours have also increased in popularity. NMFS is leading collaborative efforts to mitigate impacts of activities through a Spinner Dolphin Working Group and Dolphin Smart Program. NMFS hopes to minimize effects through rule making, education, and enforcement of time-area closures and monitoring programs.

                            Addressing Cumulative Environmental Impacts in Development Projects: Experience and Emerging Lessons at the IDB

                            Presenter(s): Janine Ferretti, Elizabeth Brito

                            The Environment and Safeguards Compliance Policy of the Inter-American Development Bank requires that cumulative impacts be part of the range of effects and impacts examined in an environmental assessment. Among some of the key issues the IDB faces are those related to the carrying out of the assessment as well as those related to developing the strategies and actions to address the cumulative impacts identified. The presentation will address questions regarding the responsibilities of proponents and other relevant agencies.

                            Adaptive Management and Integrated Decision Making

                            Presenter(s): Larry Canter, Sam Atkinson

                            Adaptive Management (AM) is being used as a follow-up to EIA/CEA studies. Typical AM processes incorporate management objectives, conceptual to quantitative models, management choices, monitoring, systematic decision making, and stakeholder collaboration. Such processes reduce cumulative effects uncertainties, and inform decision making relative to local and regional operational changes to minimize cumulative effects. Advantages and concerns regarding AM will be highlighted along with AM case studies. Particular attention will be given to multi-agency collaboration within the case studies.

                            Environmental Sustainability and CEA

                            Moderator: Robin Senner


                            On Building Environmental Sustainability Assurance into Cumulative Effects Assessment

                            Presenter(s): Barry Sadler

                            Environmental sustainability means the impact of our development activities must stay within the regenerative (source) and assimilative (sink) capacities of natural systems and not persistently exceed or degrade them. These thresholds are poorly understood at all spatial scales and the potential changes in ecosystem structure and function associated with cumulative effects cannot be predicted with any confidence. In light of present trends, the incorporation of risk-based, precautionary and compensatory measures into environmental assessment and management seems a prudent response. This paper argues the case for this approach and identifies elements and protocols that can build increased sustainability assurance into development decision-making.

                            Assessing the Sustainability of Project Alternatives

                            Presenter(s): Robin Senner

                            Evaluating and comparing development alternatives with respect to sustainability is an important goal for comprehensive project assessment. This component has been largely missing from standard environmental impact assessment (EIA) practice. To succeed, any procedure to incorporate sustainability into EIA must be convenient, fast, and inexpensive. Cumulative effects assessment provides an efficient and systematic way to incorporate sustainability metrics and predictors that have already been developed as criteria for rating systems and evaluation programs increasingly applied to buildings, communities, and infrastructure.

                            Environmental Sustainability as the Basis for Cumulative Effects Management: A Case Study

                            Presenter(s): Tom Swor

                            Multiple strategies aided the incorporation of management within a CEA study for the Ohio River mainstem. The most significant development was VEC-specific matrices of “Reasonably Foreseeable Future Actions”; they were utilized throughout the study. Management of cumulative effects required consolidation of a large amount of information. The outcome was a three-level analysis of environmental sustainability (unsustainable, marginally sustainable, and sustainable) addressing past, current, and future conditions. The resultant conditions served as the foundation for identifying appropriate management measures.

                            The Potential Role of Cumulative Environmental Assessment Practices in Re-Engineering Institutional and Legal Frameworks and Policies for Managing Sustainable Economic Development. The Case of Small Island Development States in the Caribbean (Trinidad and Tobago)

                            Presenter(s): Wayne Huggins

                            This paper explores the challenge of practicing Cumulative Environmental Assessments (CEA) in the context of weak institutional and legal frameworks and policies governing Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). The paper describes the role of EIAs in the Development Approval process in Trinidad and Tobago. The weaknesses of the current framework and the leading role the ethical and professional CEA specialist can play in influencing environmental policy are explored.

                            Oil Sands (Part 1)

                            Moderator: George Hegmann


                            The Dirt on Dirty Oil: An Oil Sands Reality Check

                            Presenter(s): George Hegmann

                            Opening remarks.

                            Overview of Government of Alberta Cumulative Effects Management Initiatives in the Oil Sands Region

                            Presenter(s): Shannon Flint

                            An increasing rate of industrial growth and associated impacts on the environment in northeastern Alberta calls for implementing environmental management strategies that enable outcome achievement by effectively addressing the cumulative effects of resource development. The Government of Alberta is leading or supporting a number of place-based initiatives in the Oil Sands region focused on the development and delivery of outcomes through a cumulative effects management approach. This presentation provides a brief overview of the context, purpose, structure and linkages among these initiatives.

                            Not Significant: The Residual Effect of Oil Sands CEAs

                            Presenter(s): Terry Antoniuk

                            The scope of conventional oil sands cumulative effects assessments has been limited by precedent and practice. As a result, routine design, mitigation, and compensation measures do not prevent progressive degradation of social and environmental systems over the long-term. Pre-defined management objectives, including explicit targets or thresholds are required to avoid these unintended and undesirable consequences. These will require scientific and local knowledge to inform social decisions on appropriate trade-offs. Computer simulation tools provide a mechanism to incorporate available knowledge and inform decision makers about likely benefits and costs of different management targets or approaches.

                            Opportunities to Leverage Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment in the Oil Sands

                            Presenter(s): Peter Koning

                            Forecasts for oil sands development range from peaks of 4 MM b/d to 6.5 MM b/d. The number of project applications will rise correspondingly. The current regulatory environment requires the preparation of a comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment, with approval processes including consultation taking up to 4 years to complete. With the projects currently moving through the approval process, there is abundant duplication of information, particularly related to cumulative effects assessment. Opportunities exist for system improvements that leverage regional strategic environmental assessment. Such improvements would yield efficiencies for industry, government and stakeholders. An industry perspective on the current system will be provided along with a perspective on the possible efficiencies of moving to an alternate approach.

                            Oil Sands (Part 2)

                            Moderator: George Hegmann


                            Solving the Problem: Cumulative Solutions for the Oil Sands’ Cumulative Effects

                            Presenter(s): George Hegmann

                            Opening remarks.

                            Outcome Delivery Options in the Oil Sands Region

                            Presenter(s): Shannon Flint

                            Effectively managing the cumulative effects of natural resource development on the environment in the Oil Sands region requires the use of an innovative suite of regulatory and non-regulatory outcome delivery tools. This presentation provides an overview of the delivery options currently in place or under consideration by the Government of Alberta and its partners. The presentation will suggest decision criteria that can be used to support choosing delivery tools, and the potential benefits and implementation issues associated with the options.

                            Establishing Management Objectives

                            Presenter(s): Terry Antoniuk

                            Two case studies that used the approach described in the presentation “Not Significant: The Residual Effect of Oil Sands CEAs” in the previous Session will be described.

                            A Regional Strategic Assessment of Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Oil Sands by CEMA

                            Presenter(s): Peter Koning

                            CEMA, a large multi-stakeholder organization charged with developing recommendations to the government on how to manage cumulative effects to air, land and water within the RMWB, completed a framework for the management of cumulative effects on terrestrial ecosystems for the oil sands region in June 2008. The development of this framework was supported by strategic modeling that involved forecasting development 100 years into the future, testing key assumptions and evaluating strategic land management options in relation to key indicators. An overview of the methodology for the assessments will be described, along with the development forecasts and management option scenarios. Highlights of the results and key learnings will be presented.

                            Regional-Level SEA (Part 1)

                            Moderator: Barry Sadler


                            Introduction to Theme Forum: On SEA Application to Address Cumulative Effects: What is the Value Added by a Regional Approach?

                            Presenter(s): Barry Sadler

                            By definition, SEA is far better equipped than project-level EIA to address cumulative effects. In practice, experience with SEA use internationally suggests that this approach has fallen short of initial expectations as a means of identifying and managing cumulative effects. Regional-level SEA, already applied in certain jurisdictions, is being considered in Canada as a better way of dealing with these effects at appropriate spatial scales. The value added to planning and decision-making can be variously itemized, but arguably will be commensurate with the overall correspondence of REA to an ecosystem-based approach, i.e., which evaluates (however imperfectly) the significance of cumulative effects against a framework of conservation objectives and criteria.

                            Alberta’s Cumulative Effects Management System

                            Presenter(s): Menzie McEachern, Ian Dyson, Christine Lazaruk

                            The Government of Alberta is developing a new outcomes-based environmental management system. The Cumulative Effects Management System will consider the environmental implications of development for an entire region. A new approach is necessary if we intend to protect the environmental quality (air, land, water, biodiversity) of our province. This evolutionary approach will be integrated with the provincial Land-use Framework and change the way the Government of Alberta does business.

                            Regional Planning for Cumulative Effects Management

                            Presenter(s): Dave Belyea, Dave Borutski

                            The Government of Alberta has developed a new land-use framework for the province. The entire framework defines and supports an outcomes-based, adaptive management approach. A key strategy is development of six integrated regional plans covering the province. The planning process and its relationship to Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment and to cumulative effects management will be described, with the leading case examples.

                            Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment in Alberta

                            Presenter(s): Dallas Johnson, John Kenney, Menzie McEachern, Gustavo Mendoza, Andrew Buffin

                            Alberta Environment will present a conceptual framework for Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment (RSEA). The presentation will explore the potential utility of RSEA as a planning tool within the context of Alberta’s shift to a cumulative effects management system.

                            Regional-Level SEA (Part 2)

                            Moderator: Barry Sadler


                            CEA in Policies and Plans: Case Studies in the UK

                            Presenter(s): Lourdes Cooper

                            This paper initially presents the legislative and regulatory requirements for assessing cumulative effects in plans and programmes in the UK. The two approaches for assessing plans in the UK, Sustainability Appraisal (SA) and SEA are discussed. In most cases, a combined SA and SEA process is undertaken by Local Planning Authorities. The issues, methods and findings in assessing cumulative effects within this combined approach are explored in case studies.

                            Integrating Cumulative Effects in Water and Spatial Planning

                            Presenter(s): Barbara Carroll, Josh Fothergill, Joanne Murphy

                            Spatial/development plans are required to consider cumulative effects through statutory SEA/SA. Water plans consider CEA in their SEA approach. The objectives-led EU Water Framework Directive should enable integration with spatial planning SA/SEA for a more effective tool to inform decision making. The paper explores recent practical experience of addressing cumulative effects of river basin management plans and spatial plans in the UK. It investigates the extent of integration achieved and suggests mechanisms for improving effectiveness.

                            Re-Defining Cumulative Effects Assessment in the Context of Regionally-Based Strategic Environmental Assessment

                            Presenter(s): Jill Harriman Gunn, Bram Noble

                            Despite common sentiment that cumulative effects assessment (CEA) in a strategic setting is “the same as” CEA in a project environmental impact assessment (EIA) setting, several features of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) alter the consideration of cumulative effects and vice versa. This paper draws on Canadian case examples of formal and informal regional and strategic EA to illustrate the specific challenges and reconsiderations that integrating CEA and R-SEA presents.

                            A Strategic Approach to Regional Cumulative Effects Assessment in the Great Sand Hills, Saskatchewan

                            Presenter(s): Bram Noble, Brent Bitter

                            We report on integrated CEA-SEA experience in the Great Sand Hills (GSH), Saskatchewan. The 2007 GSH study rolled up 15 years of regional planning and provides direction for cumulative effects management and land use. The assessment required a process unlike previous efforts, and a framework that could support futures-oriented CEA. We present the GSH strategic assessment framework, discuss how such frameworks guide CEA processes at the regional scale, and offer a number of observations concerning “good” regional CEA.

                            Regional-Level SEA (Part 3)

                            Moderator: Brent Bitter


                            The Missing Link: EIA-SEA Systems in Hydroelectric Planning

                            Presenter(s): Juan Quintero

                            The efficiency and effectiveness of EIA systems as a tool for environmental management and long-term sustainability for the hydroelectric sector are being questioned in many countries. There have been many recent initiatives to introduce Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in hydroelectric sector planning in developing nations, however, without clear linkages to EIA. A conceptual Integrated Environmental Management System for the hydroelectric sector is proposed, which links SEA and EIA through Cumulative Impact Assessment at the watershed level.

                            Regional Strategic Environmental Assessment (RSEA) in Oil, Gas and Petrochemical Industries in Arabian Gulf Countries

                            Presenter(s): Habib Alshuwaikhat

                            Concern for the environment has been one of the basic responsibilities and a long-standing commitment of oil, gas and petrochemical industries. However, it has been observed that regional strategic environmental assessments (RSEA) of major projects in many Arabian Gulf countries are not part of the industries’ environmental assessment practices. The main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of RSEA. The international RSEA practices and experiences in oil and gas industries are also outlined.

                            Assessment of Cumulative Effects in Finnish Forest Planning Regulation

                            Presenter(s): Ismo Pölönen

                            The presentation deals with the existing and potential use of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in Finnish forestry planning. It focuses on the question how the assessment of cumulative environmental impacts is addressed in forest planning regulation. The context is largely regional forestry planning for private-owned forests. The paper shows that the assessment requirements on forestry planning are very general in nature and assessment documents contain only brief and often vague estimation of cumulative environmental effects. The paper also identifies the difficulties of introducing new statutory assessment duties and concludes that the new assessment requirements should be well-integrated to the existing planning system.

                            Method and Practice Progress of Cumulative Environmental Assessment in SEA at Planning Level in China

                            Presenter(s): Wei Li, Yanju Liu

                            As a key technical target of SEA at planning level in China, cumulative environmental assessment (CEA) has been a challenge for the existing SEA methods and practice. Based on the SEA pilot studies organized by Ministry of Environmental Protection, the merits and limits of four CEA methods are summarized and discussed: spatial and industrial correlation analysis, retrospective analysis of development decision and environmental change, dynamic evaluation of environmental carrying capacity and similarity analysis of cause and effect relations.

                            The Future Directions of Cumulative Effects: Making It Happen (Part 2)

                            Moderator: Doug Marteinson, Joseph Wells, Miles Scott-Brown


                            This theme forum Workshop will be characterized by high participation, collaborative dialogue and strategic networking. It aims to maximize conference integration and synthesis and will be of particular interest to CEAM practitioners who want to discuss innovative but practical ways forward. The Workshop will utilize Open Space Technology, a format that draws on the wisdom in the room and gives all participants the opportunity to put their most burning issue respecting cumulative effects on the table. Participation will be limited to 40 people (see sign-up sheet posted on the message board).

                            This Workshop will focus on such questions as:

                            • How can we best apply our EIA and SEA tools to cumulative effects management?
                            • What changes are needed to make the current regulatory approach to cumulative effects management more effective?
                            • How will we bring all parties to the table and develop collaborative approaches to the management of cumulative effects?
                            • What specific tools, management frameworks, or thresholds for growth make sense for cumulative effects management?
                            • How can we effectively communicate these issues to stakeholders and the public at large?
                            • What challenges must we overcome now and in the future?

                            Through discussion and peer dialogue, participants may uncover breakthroughs on cumulative effects topics. The format enables integration and learning across science, institutions, operational practice, sectors and systems. Informal communities of practice may develop and expanded opportunities for continued online dialogue may emerge.

                            While the forum begins and ends with this large group, it will break into numerous concurrent discussion groups through the day. Key points from each discussion group will be captured, entered into computers and made available to all Workshop participants on the morning of the conference on Day 4.

                            The Future Directions of Cumulative Effects: Making It Happen (Part 3)

                            Moderator: Doug Marteinson, Joseph Wells, Miles Scott-Brown


                            This theme forum Workshop will be characterized by high participation, collaborative dialogue and strategic networking. It aims to maximize conference integration and synthesis and will be of particular interest to CEAM practitioners who want to discuss innovative but practical ways forward. The Workshop will utilize Open Space Technology, a format that draws on the wisdom in the room and gives all participants the opportunity to put their most burning issue respecting cumulative effects on the table. Participation will be limited to 40 people (see sign-up sheet posted on the message board).

                            This Workshop will focus on such questions as:

                            • How can we best apply our EIA and SEA tools to cumulative effects management?
                            • What changes are needed to make the current regulatory approach to cumulative effects management more effective?
                            • How will we bring all parties to the table and develop collaborative approaches to the management of cumulative effects?
                            • What specific tools, management frameworks, or thresholds for growth make sense for cumulative effects management?
                            • How can we effectively communicate these issues to stakeholders and the public at large?
                            • What challenges must we overcome now and in the future?

                            Through discussion and peer dialogue, participants may uncover breakthroughs on cumulative effects topics. The format enables integration and learning across science, institutions, operational practice, sectors and systems. Informal communities of practice may develop and expanded opportunities for continued online dialogue may emerge.

                            While the forum begins and ends with this large group, it will break into numerous concurrent discussion groups through the day. Key points from each discussion group will be captured, entered into computers and made available to all Workshop participants on the morning of the conference on Day 4.